apply problem-based learning to real-world problem-solving.

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apply problem-based learning to real-world problem-solving.

apply problem-based learning to real-world problem-solving.
PBL Problem-Solving Process Guide – Optional As you work to address the problem, this guide will walk you through the PBL problem-solving process you will be using throughout your DBA program. Name: Team Members: Team Reporter: The team reporter is responsible for keeping track of all project documents and artifacts. These will need to be submitted at the completion of this project. DEFINE THE PROBLEM 3 STEP 1a: Identify Facts and Stakeholders 3 STEP 1b: Define the Problem 4 STEP 1c: Identify the Deliverable(s) 4 STEP 2: Generate Hypotheses 4 ANALYZE & RESEARCH THE PROBLEM 5 STEP 3a: Identify Learning Issues 5 STEP 3b: Prioritize Learning Issues 6 STEP 3c: Assign Learning Issues 6 STEP 4a: Create Research Plan 6 STEP 4b: Conduct Research 7 STEP 5: Report Research to Team 7 ADDRESS THE PROBLEM 8 STEP 6: Apply New Knowledge Based on Findings 8 STEP 7: Evaluate 9 STEP 8a: Plan for Deliverable 9 Identify the Appropriate Format Based on Context 9 Expected Format Based on Context 10 Team Plan for Producing Deliverable 10 STEP 8b: Produce Deliverable 12 STEP 8c: Present Deliverable 12 ASSESS & REFLECT ON THE PROBLEM AND PROCESS 13 STEP 9: Assess & Reflect: What knowledge and skills were learned? 13 STEP 10: Assess & Reflect: Create An Action Plan 13 DEFINE THE PROBLEM Once you are introduced to the problem, your team will use the following steps to complete the PBL process. STEP 1a: Identify Facts and Stakeholders As a team it is critical that you have a common understanding of the key facts, stakeholders, and problem you are trying to address. Use the form below to help your team build a common context for the problem you are trying to address. What information and facts are known? Put your personal notes here as you read the problem, then share with the group and add these to the Facts column of the PBL Process Chart your team created. Who are the stakeholders (people or organizations that have an interest, concern, or relationship to the problem) and what role (How are they involved with or related to the problem?) does each stakeholder play in the problem scenario? Stakeholder Role STEP 1b: Define the Problem Define the problem in a statement. Based on the information you have identified above, what is the problem you are trying to address? As a member of the ICTC Restart Committee…. STEP 1c: Identify the Deliverable(s) Now that you have defined the problem, what is the deliverable? A deliverable is how you have been asked to share out your solution (e.g., report, executive summary, presentation, video) STEP 2: Generate Hypotheses Based on the identified facts, stakeholders, and problem, brainstorm a few initial working hypotheses (potential solutions). What are possible explanations, ideas, or solutions? This is just an area to brainstorm ideas based on what you know at this very early stage in the process. ANALYZE & RESEARCH THE PROBLEM STEP 3a: Identify Learning Issues Now that you have a common understanding of the existing facts, stakeholders, and problem you are trying to address as a team, as well as some initial working hypotheses, it is now time to think about what you need to create a plan. What do you need to know to adequately address the problem you identified? How will you learn this? Your team may have conflicting ideas, incomplete, incongruent, or unclear ideas or explanations. How will you resolve these? Whether you use chart paper, a whiteboard, or an electronic copy, it is important that your team complete a structured “PBL Whiteboard” (see below) as this enables your team to collaboratively navigate the problem, co-construct knowledge, and plan and monitor progress (Hmelo-Silver, 2004). PBL Whiteboard Facts Ideas Learning Issues Action Plan What do we know? What are our ideas about potential solutions? What do we need to know? How can we find out? Use this column to track not only the initial facts identified but all the important information related to addressing the problem that your team finds as you conduct and share research. As a starting point, add the Facts identified in STEP 1 in this column. As your team conducts research, keep updating this column to reflect updated facts. Use this column to track your evolving hypotheses about solutions. Use this column to track questions you believe are critical to finding a solution that addresses the problem. Use this column to track plans for addressing the learning issues or obtaining additional information. A variety of research tasks may be used to address questions based on the type of data needed. These research tasks may encompass qualitative or quantitative approaches, including: interviews, focus groups, literature review, internet or database searches, field observations, surveys, simulations, or statistical analysis of existing data sets. Make sure you track who is responsible for each question. STEP 3b: Prioritize Learning Issues Now that you have created a list of Learning Issues and have a plan for how you will address them, take time to rank them in order of importance. Which questions are highest priority and most critical for you to address first? Make note of your priorities on your team’s PBL Process Chart. STEP 3c: Assign Learning Issues As a team, next you will decide which Learning Issues will be followed up by the whole group and which issues will be assigned to individuals, who later report out their findings to the team. Be sure to note on the PBL Process Chart who is going to address which questions. One way to do this is to simply put a person’s initials next to the item they are assigned. STEP 4a: Create Research Plan Using your team’s PBL Process Chart, decide on a timeline for individuals on your team to address the items in the Learning Issues and Action Plan columns. Before you begin, agree on the following: Timeline: How long will this phase of research last? Due Date(s): When will each person’s research tasks be due? Materials and Resources to be Used: What materials and resources will be used and does everyone have access to these? Group Resource Folder: As data and resources are collected, where will this information be saved so everyone has access? Deliverables: What and in what format will each member be responsible for delivering to the team at the end of this research period? Item Team Decision Timeline Due Date(s) Materials and Resources to be Used Group Resource Folder Deliverables NOTE: You can copy and paste the table above to create a new research plan each time you revisit this step. STEP 4b: Conduct Research Now that your team has created a research plan, it is time to start addressing the Learning Issues you identified. STEP 5: Report Research to Team Now that you have completed research (STEP 4) on the learning issues identified (STEP 3), please share this information with your team and update your team’s PBL Process Chart to reflect your research findings. NOTE: Although STEPS 5-7 are presented in a linear fashion, in reality while you are reporting findings, you should be synthesizing this new information by discussing, evaluating, organizing and prioritizing the information, asking new questions, posing tentative explanations, and refining hypotheses. ADDRESS THE PROBLEM STEP 6: Apply New Knowledge Based on Findings After you have updated the PBL Process Chart to reflect any new information gathered, take a minute to revisit the problem you are trying to address. Do you need to revise the problem statement or stakeholders based on new information? REVISE: What is the problem you are trying to address? REVISE: Who are the stakeholders and what the role of each stakeholder? Stakeholder Role Now, based on the updated PBL Process Chart, revist and update your initial hypotheses to reflect your new thinking. What are your updated hypotheses (potential solutions) based on the updated problem statement, facts, and stakeholders at this point in time? STEP 7: Evaluate Now that you have completed some research and applied that new knowledge to the problem: How has your understanding of the problem changed? What additional questions do you now have? Does your team have adequate knowledge to address the problem? Do you need to conduct additional research? NOTE: STEPS 3-7 are an iterative part of the problem-solving process. You will repeat the problem-solving process outlined in STEPS 3-7 as often as needed given time constraints and until your team feels they are able to reach a sound hypothesis based on thorough research. You may find this Decision-Making Matrix helpful when making a decision about the hypothesis. Hypothesis Pros Cons Potential Consequences STEP 8a: Plan for Deliverable Once your team is satisfied that you have a sound hypothesis (based on thorough research) that adequately addresses the problem, you need to create a plan for putting together the deliverable you were asked to produce. It might be helpful to consider two types of plans: (1) Identifying and planning the appropriate format for your deliverable(s) based on what is the expected professional norm within the context of the problem, and (2) Planning for how your team will actually create the deliverable(s). Identify the Appropriate Format Based on Context Crafting your deliverable to fit the expected professional norms of the context of your problem helps you have more authority and be more persuasive. If you don’t follow the expected format you will stick out as a novice with little authority. For example, a scientific research report within the field of biology looks very different from an executive summary presented to a CEO of a hospital. And both of those look very different from a pitch made by a startup company to a group of potential investors. It is key that you understand your audience and their expectations for different types of documents and presentations. What is the expected format of your deliverable given the particular context of the problem? For example, if it is a presentation, what is the expected style of that presentation? How many slides are expected? How long are you expected to present? Is it customary for only one person to present or more than one person? If it is a report, what style is the norm? For example, is there a particular format within the field or profession that is expected? if you cite research within the document what citation approach is expected (e.g., APA, MLA, Footnotes)? Expected Format Based on Context What is the expected format of your deliverable given the particular context of the problem? Team Plan for Producing Deliverable Now that you understand the expected format of your deliverable, it is time for you to create a team plan. Before proceeding, be sure to clearly define the following: Agreed Upon Deliverable: What will the deliverable be? What type, size, length, format, etc.? Quality Standards: What are the quality expectations for the deliverable? When will we know it is done? Project Owner: Who will be the individual responsible for the final quality check and submitting/sharing the file(s) as required Roles and Responsibilities: Who is responsible for completing what? Timeline: When do they need to be completed by? When does everything need to be completed so there Feedback: How and when will you provide feedback to each other on work products? Other: What else is important to come to agreement on? Once you have discussed these agreements, please complete the form below as a team: Item Agreement Agreed Upon Deliverable Quality Standards Be as specific as possible Project Owner Roles and Responsibilities Timeline: Feedback: Other: Other: Other: You can use the table below to assign tasks to your team. Component of Deliverable Responsibility Target Date/Time STEP 8b: Produce Deliverable Now it’s time to pull all your resources together and produce the requested deliverable(s). Make sure you continually monitor progress and have built in time for feedback and revision. STEP 8c: Present Deliverable Once your team has produced the deliverable, you will need to present it to the stakeholders. Make sure you decide, in advance, which team member is responsible for what part of your presentation. Team Member Responsibility ASSESS & REFLECT ON THE PROBLEM AND PROCESS STEP 9: Assess & Reflect: What knowledge and skills were learned? What key subject-matter knowledge related to this problem did you gain that you can apply to other situations? What did you learn about the problem-solving process and/or team process that you can apply in other situations? STEP 10: Assess & Reflect: Create An Action Plan Based on your reflection (STEP 9), what concrete steps will you take to improve the process your team uses to address the next problem? Action Step Description 13 © 2020 by Matthew Callison, PhD. All rights reserved. Do not copy or distribute without permission of the author.

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