Create a 12 pages page paper that discusses diabetes mellitus type 2. Glucose is the major source of energy and is often derived from food and the liver’s ability to manufacture glucose from its glycogen stores. During the first phase of the disease, insulin secretion is regulated with the balanced production and output of glucose by the liver. The defects of the beta-cell function, results in the loss of inhibitory effects (Daniels & Nicoll, 2011). During a carbohydrate load from a meal, glucose production by the liver is not a requirement, however, owing to the loss of inhibitory effects, the liver continues to produce glucose thus contributing to a state of hyperglycemia in the body (Daniels & Nicoll, 2011). In the pre-diabetes state, the high glucose levels build up over the years and eventually triggers insulin secretion (hyperinsulinemia), for the purposes of regulating blood glucose and to counteract the tissues that are resistant to insulin. During the second phase, the beta-cells continue to secrete high levels of insulin for years to regulate blood glucose levels. Eventually, the beta-cells failure occurs resulting in a decrease in insulin production. These slow and stealthy pathophysiologic changes in type 2 diabetes occur gradually taking up to 20 years to develop (Daniell & Nicoll, 2011).
There are a number of identifiable risk factors of diabetes. These factors include obesity, old age, family history of diabetes, and history of gestational diabetes, insulin resistance, impaired glucose metabolism, physical inactivity and less than optimum intrauterine environment.