Leadership Development Paper • Assignment: (265 points) o Prompt: The purpose of this paper is to articulate your development as a leader from a Christian worldview. Include the following content in y

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Leadership Development Paper • Assignment: (265 points)o Prompt: The purpose of this paper is to articulate your development as a leader from a Christian worldview. Include the following content in your paper as you integrate the material covered in all lectures:§ Characteristics of communication§ Assessment of current leadership condition or status§ Description of future leadership development goals and state§ Explain how each weekly topic will help you meet your leadership development goals – The use of headings for each weekly topic is recommended. For example, the heading for this expectation might beCourse Support with sub-headings of Communication, Time Management, Critical Thinking, etc.§ Paradigm/theological support for biblical leadership in contrast to secular perspective of leadership –500-1,000 wordso Requirements: Your paper must be 2,500 to 3,000 words and be APA-compliant.Include a title page, references page, and a minimum of five scholarly sources.

UNIT SEVENTopics• Introduction to Teams• Teams Versus Groups• Effective Teams• Team Development• Team Member Skills and Behavior• Leading Teams• Defining the Portfolio’s Purpose and Use• Developing the Format• Creating A Personal Plan

Leadership Development Paper • Assignment: (265 points) o Prompt: The purpose of this paper is to articulate your development as a leader from a Christian worldview. Include the following content in y
MSL 601 Introduction to Graduate Education Belhaven University Unit One Understanding Graduate School Topic Covered in this Lecture  Belhaven’s vision and mission  Understanding a Christian worldview  Graduate versus undergraduate studies  Academic success  Student responsibilities Belhaven’s Mission  Belhaven University’s mission is to prepare students academically and spiritually to serve Christ Jesus in their careers, in human relationships, and in the world of ideas. Belhaven’s Vision  Our vision begins with affirming the Lordship of Christ over all aspects of life, acknowledges the Bible as the foundational authority for the development of a personal worldview, and recognizes each individual’s career as a calling from God.  Each academic department is committed to high academic goals for its students and clarifies the implications of biblical truth for its discipline. Introduction to MSL601  Review of APA and writing papers  Research Methods  Critical Thinking  Communication Skills  Time Management  Leadership Introduction to the Graduate Program  MBA Program  MPA Program  MSL Program  Preparing for the Capstone Courses Worldviews  “A worldview is a conceptual scheme by which we consciously or unconsciously place or fit everything we believe and by which we interpret and judge reality” (Nash, 1988, p. 24). Competing Worldviews  Assumptions make a big difference  How we see human beings  How we see the world  How we view morality  Secular Assumptions  God is irrelevant  Man is just an animal  Truth is relative Christian Worldview  Developing a Christian Worldview  Belhaven’s unique graduate program designed and delivered from a Christian worldview A Christian Worldview begins with Creation  God created all things  He made all things good  He created Adam and Eve  They were called to be fruitful and multiply  Adam was called to name the things in the garden  Truth about God is revealed in nature (general revelation) A Christian Worldview understands the effects of the Fall  The Fall  Mankind fell into sin and death.  The whole world is under the influence of sin.  Humankind’s corruption affects all aspects of human life including the mind. (the noetic effects of sin) Creation, Fall, Redemption  Redemption  The hope of mankind comes through the work of Jesus Christ.  A redeemed mind sees the world as God’s world and of great value.  A redeemed mind sees that God loves people and they are created in image and of infinite value.  Thus a redeemed mind restores understanding to what it is supposed to be. Aspects of a Christian Worldview  God is a God of truth  All knowledge belongs to God  We need to think about the world and about man from the perspective of God (“bring every thought captive”)  We need to think about our work and our study as a means to glorify God. Bring every thought captive  God wants us to bring our lives into conformity with Christ.  God wants us to see the world from God’s perspective: know of the world (Science)  Even our work and knowledge of our work should be brought under the authority of God. Your Vocation  Your work matters to God  Just like a pastor is called to serve God in the church we as citizens of God’s kingdom are called to serve him in our vocation.  We are to glorify God in our work (creation mandate) and for those who are redeemed to actively glorify God in all our work (redemption). Your Vocation  Our work is not our God  Your work is important to God  Glorify God in your work  Your study in graduate school is important to God Graduate versus Undergraduate Education  Accelerated pace  Bar is raised on all levels  Heavier workload  Additional reading requirements  Longer and more extensive written assignments  Papers focus on analyzing, assessing, and problem -solving  Papers written on a professional level with objective Academic Success  Prayer  Collaboration and support from cohorts  Commitment  Sacrifice  Support from family and friends  Time management Student Responsibilities  Download and print syllabus  Read carefully several times  Thoroughly read weekly assignments prior to the beginning of each Unit  Recommend taking notes from reading material  Check for updated announcements Student Responsibilities, cont.  Review posts/questions of other students submitted in the facilitator’s forum  Submit completed assignments prior to the due date  Submit answers and replies to the discussion forums  Ask questions of the professor if uncertain about assignment expectations Online Resources  Belhaven electronic database  Grammarly  Sites of established and recognized organizations  Government sites  Avoid personal sites  Avoid sites with unknown authors  Do not use Wikipedia! Learning tools  Lectures  Hearing and seeing  Text book  Reading  Individual homework  Analyzing  Discussion forum  Applying and  Examining  Completing all components is very important to accomplish the objectives of the course. Format for each Session  Introduction of the Unit  Unit Topics  Christian worldview integration  Major topics and points for the week’s learning objectives Online Learning  Characteristics  Online learners must be highly self – motivated.  Online learners must have high responsibility for assignments and discussions.  Facts  Online learning is not easier than traditional classroom learning.  Learners must meet deadlines.  It’s easy to think we’re anonymous because there’s no face time. 24 Tips for Success  Course Page  Activities  Individual homework  Discussion forum  Weekly discussions  Media  Module  Handouts & links  Class lectures  Schedule  Be attentive to deadlines.  The week (unit) begins on Sunday and ends on Saturday.  Observe Sabbath  Manage your time 25 Tips for success, cont.  Communicate  Ask questions  Participate  Be engaged in discussion  Seek handouts  Contact the professor with questions or problems This concludes Unit 1  Recapping Unit 1  Belhaven’s Mission and Vision  Christian Worldview  Student Expectations  Online Resources  Tips for Success References Nash, R. (1994). Faith and reason . Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Pearcy, Nancy. (2005). Total Truth: Liberating Christianity from Its Cultural Captivity . Wheaton, IL: Crossway. Sherman, Doug. (1987). Your work matters to God . Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress.
Leadership Development Paper • Assignment: (265 points) o Prompt: The purpose of this paper is to articulate your development as a leader from a Christian worldview. Include the following content in y
MSL 601 Introduction to Graduate Education Belhaven University Unit Four Research Methods Topics Covered in this Lecture  Introduction to research  Research approaches  Research design and plan  Data collection  Primary versus secondary sources  Analysis of findings  Limitations  Case study example Topics Covered in this Lecture, cont.  Library Use  Basic Research Methods Introduction to Research  Research literally means to “search again.”  Involves systematic using scientific methodology to identify and solve problems  The purpose of business research is to “explain, predict, and/or control phenomena in the workplace” (Gay & Diehl, 1992).  For managers and leaders, it supports informed decision making Introduction to Research, cont.  Basic or theoretical research  Focuses on theory development  Applied research  Focuses on applying theory and/or testing its effectiveness in the workplace  Action research  Specific and local pragmatic focus for the purpose of problem -solving Research Approaches/Methods  Historical  Attempts to draw conclusions from historical phenomena in order to understand current or future events  Descriptive/Exploratory  Focuses on obtaining status of an event or object by assessing its attributes or characteristics Research Approaches/Methods, cont.  Correlational  Attempts to determine if there is a relationship between variables that are quantifiable  Causal -comparative  Attempts to identify a cause and effective relationship without modifying independent variable Research Approaches/Methods, cont.  Experimental  Independent variable is modified to positively establish whether there is a cause and effect relationship Research Approaches Qualitative  Inductive approach  Subjective  Data emerges during the study and is descriptive Quantitative  Deductive approach  Objective  Data is classified and tabulated  Data is numerical/statistical Research Approaches, cont. Qualitative  Words, concepts, images are analyzed  Focus on meaning  Best for understanding and sense making of complex phenomena Quantitative  Data is numerical/statistical  Uses precise language and measurements  Tests hypothesis  Seeks definitive and precise results Research Design  Provides an overarching structure and plan  Research questions  Data collection methods (qualitative/quantitative)  Selection of study  Data collection methods  Criteria for interpreting findings  Data analysis  Limitations Data Collection Qualitative  Direct observation  Participative observation  Physical artifacts  Documents (content analysis on themes, key words, etc.)  Interviews Quantitative  Surveys  Tests  Documents with variables that can be quantified  Structured interviews Primary versus Secondary Sources Primary  Addresses specific needs and problems  Extensive resource commitment  Requires research skills Secondary  Easily accessible  Good fit for papers  Sometimes dated  Economical  May not meet specific needs in solving problems Secondary Sources for Papers  Belhaven online library  Peer reviewed journals  Use websites with caution  Government data  Census data  Hard copy libraries Belhaven Online Library  Online Library Catalog search  Subject  Title  Author  Series Belhaven Online Library, cont.  Databases  Business Source Complete  ATLA Religion Database  Communication & Mass Media Complete  Ebsco EBook Collection  ERIC: Educational articles  JSTOR  LexisNexis Academic  Military & Government Collection  Regional Business News Belhaven Online Library, cont.  Additional Library Helps  Browse by  Database  Journals  Business & Management  Economics  Interlibrary Loan  Check out the library training modules Analysis of Findings  Internal reliability  Validity  Statistical analysis  Triangulation Limitations  All research has limitations  Subjectivity in documents  Interpretation of results  Invalid survey instruments  Low response rate  Scope of data collected Case Studies  Common type of research used for the classroom  Research method or design  Object to be studied  Most projects only require secondary sources Case Studies  Focus is in -depth analysis on single or multiple cases  Originates from social sciences  Can include multiple sources  Documents  Interviews  Observations  Artifacts  Data analysis includes assertions, descriptions, and themes Case Study Assignments  Most case study assignments will either provide a specific case or a list of cases to choose from  Normally a list of specific expectations is provided  Expectations can serve as guiding questions  Case study is linked with learning objectives  Normally only secondary sources are required  Problem -solving approach is helpful Steps in Completing Organizational Related Case Study Assignment 1. Selection of case 2. Use guiding questions or expectations to narrow research inquiries 3. Keep in mind how it is linked with the learning objectives 4. Collect all of your data for analysis Completing Case Study Assignment  Identify the issues in the case  How or why did the issues occur?  What stakeholders are affected?  Are their quantifiable data?  Constraints or opportunities? Completing Case Study Assignment, cont.  Articulate the problem  Differentiate between issues  Problems have solutions  Narrow and articulate problem into a problem statement Steps in Completing Case Study Assignment, cont.  Suggested steps for analyzing the case: 1. Generate list of alternatives 2. Conduct a SWOT analysis of alternatives 3. Select best or preferred alternative 4. Articulate alternative as solution 5. Develop action steps to implement solution 6. End state goals if applicable Components of Case Study Paper  Introduction  Background  Problem statement  Analysis of case (issues, problem, and linkage with end state goals).  Recommendations  End state goals  Conclusion This Concludes Unit 4  Recapping Unit 4  Research approaches  Research design and plan  Data collection  Primary verses secondary sources  Analysis of findings  Limitations  Case study example References Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Gay, L. R., & Diehl, P. L. (1992). Research methods for business and management. New York, NY: MacMillan Publishing Company. Zikmund, W. G. (2003). Essentials of marketing research. Mason, OH: Thomson South -Western.
Leadership Development Paper • Assignment: (265 points) o Prompt: The purpose of this paper is to articulate your development as a leader from a Christian worldview. Include the following content in y
MSL 601 Introduction to Graduate Education Belhaven University Unit Three Time Management Topics Covered in this Lecture  God is first: Sabbath, prayer, and meditation  Principles for managing time  Prioritizing  Focus  Family and personal considerations  Supportive tools  Time management strategies God is First!  Sabbath  Prayer  Meditation Principles for Managing Your Time  Common concepts  Time is a commodity  Time is money  Time is of the essence  Giving of your time Principles, cont.  Benefits of time management:  Maximize productivity  Achieve goals  Supports a balanced life with God being first Everyone is Unique  Know yourself:  Time conscience – Some people keep a very strict account of time.  Time oblivious – Some people are always late and are oblivious to deadlines and schedules.  Time procrastinators – This personality type is aware of deadlines and schedules but puts off tasks until the last minute. Evaluate Your Activities  Time Analysis:  Document daily activities  Create list of tasks  Set a deadline to accomplish tasks  Document time spent on tasks  Analyze amount of time spent  Identify wasted time Redeem Your Time  Every minute counts  Plan to use gaps that occur each day  Five minutes reclaimed here, and ten minutes there can add up to a substantial amount  Say “no!” Focus  Find a place to study that works and stick with it.  Tackle difficult subjects or sections first  Avoid cramming at last minute  Set up a weekly schedule with equal daily allotments. Set Goals  Setting goals is vital for effective time management.  Identify what needs to be to accomplished  Goals add focus S.M.A.R.T. Goals  Specific  Measurable  Attainable  Realistic  Time specific Prioritize  Scan your “to do list”  Flag urgent items from nonurgent items  Break up larger tasks Application of Principles  Each day make a daily plan of activities/tasks  Prioritize list of daily tasks  Eliminate nonessentials  Delegate if possible  Factor enough time to do the task right Application of Principles, cont.  Evaluate effectiveness regularly  Take regular breaks  Identify distractions and eliminate them  Do not neglect physical exercise and diet Signs of Poor Time Management  Constant rushing  Missed deadlines  Work overload  Sense of being overwhelmed  Indecision Take my yoke upon you  Stop and pray  Look to Jesus  Meditate on Matthew. 11:28 -30 Pareto Principle  Pareto Principle or 80/20 rule  20% of your time accomplishes 80% of your tasks  20% of priorities produce 80% or results Operational vs. Inspirational goals  S.M.A.R.T. goals are not enough  Balance assignments from the program with your assignment from God.  Connect with life calling  Personal spiritual goals  Personal responsibilities Inspirational goals  Link values with goals  Consider behavioral changes  Meditate on relevant scripture  Supporting ministry goals  Christ is our standard Motivation  Beliefs supersede “need” motivations  Beliefs distinct from desires  According to Rima (2000 ), there are four motivational factors  Basic needs  Physiological needs  Willful desires  Significant beliefs Family and Personal Considerations  Don’t neglect your family  Establish quality time  Schedule special activities  Ask for their support  Make educational goals a family effort  Take time to sharpen your axe Supportive Tools  Note taking software  Bibliography and research software  Scheduling software  Daily planners  Reminders  Databases  Internet accessibility Ad hoc Tips  Value all of your time as something to be used  Look for something positive or enjoyable  Be an optimist  Build on previous successes  Move on from previous failures Ad hoc Tips, cont.  Make time for what is really important  Challenge yourself to find new approaches to free up your time.  Evaluate unproductive habits  Keep supportive tools handy  Revise goals as needed  Be mindful of long term goals Ad hoc Tips, cont.  Review activities at the beginning and end of the day.  Pray over these activities  Reward yourself for simple accomplishments  Conduct self -check for wasting time  Ask yourself if you are avoiding a task  Concentrate on one item at a time  Ask for support and help from your cohorts or your professor. Self – Check List  Are you putting God first?  How frequently are your daily goals achieved?  How flexible are you in changing plans?  How frequent do you make plans on how to avoid distractions? Self – Check List, cont.  Are you documenting your time management plan?  Are you making time for personal obligations?  Are you allowing time for rest?  How frequently are you being interrupted? Time Management Strategy  Previous points provide the elements for developing strategic time management plan  Develop a plan that works for you  Assess your current situation  Needs  Obligations  Responsibilities Time Management Strategy, cont.  Set your short -term assignment goals on ongoing basis  Link with achieving long -term ministry and educational goals  Develop specific steps  Assess success  Revaluate what is working  Give God the glory This Concludes Unit 3  Recapping Unit 3  God is first: Sabbath, prayer, and meditation  Principles for managing time  Prioritizing and focusing  Family and personal considerations  Supportive tools  Time management strategies References  Dartmouth College (2001) Time tips. Academic skills center. Retrieved from http://www.dartmouth.edu/~acskills/succe ss /time.html  Nelson, D. L., Quick, J. C. (2006). Organizational behavior: Foundations, realities, & challenges. (5th. ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson South -Western. References, cont.  Mayo Clinic. (2009). Time management: Tips to reduce stress and improve productivity. retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/time – management/WL00048  Rima, S. D. (200). Leading from the inside out: The art of self -leadership. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books.
Leadership Development Paper • Assignment: (265 points) o Prompt: The purpose of this paper is to articulate your development as a leader from a Christian worldview. Include the following content in y
MSL 601 Introduction to Graduate Education Belhaven University Unit Five Critical Thinking Topics Covered in this Lecture  Defining critical thinking  Importance of critical thinking  Perspectives  Assumptions and biases  Sound reasoning  Deductive versus inductive reasoning  Logical fallacies Defining Critical Thinking  Defining critical thinking requires the use of critical thinking  Depends upon context  Affected by worldview Various Definitions  “The use of those cognitive skills or strategies that increase the probability of a desirable outcome – in the long run, critical thinkers will have more desirable outcomes than ‘noncritical’ thinkers (where ‘desirable’ is defined by the individual, such as making good career choices or wise financial investments)” (Halpern, 1998). Various Definitions, cont.  “Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action” (Scriven & Paul, 1996). Various Definitions, cont.  “Most formal definitions characterize critical thinking as the intentional application of rational, higher order thinking skills, such as analysis, synthesis, problem recognition and problem – solving , inference, and evaluation” (Angelo, 1995, p. 6). Why Critical Thinking?  According to Smith and Leflore (2002 ), critical thinking helps “foster the development of alternative and creative solutions to problems, and the development of clear, reasonable, meaningful, and thoughtful communications” along with being “the major component of a comprehensive definition of education itself.” CT asks the following:  how…?  why…?  what are the reasons for…?  what the types of…?  what are the functions of…?  what is the process of…?  what other examples of…?  what are the causes/ results of…?  what is the relationship between …and …? CT seeks to:  Support objectivity over subjectivity  Develop rationale arguments  Understand limitations of personal perspectives  Account for necessary assumptions and minimize unnecessary assumptions  Minimize and/or understand biases Importance of Critical Thinking  Helps interpret information and translate it into useful knowledge  Prevents being taken advantage of  Minimizes poor decision making  Helps to see more of the world around us  Equips us for effective apologetics  Enables us to be more productive Perspectives  Looking through a glass dimly  Finite knowledge  Limited experience  Degrees of maturity in Christ  Everyone has a subjective perspective  Bias can be just a preference  Bias often is negative Perspectives and Emotions  Emotions can influence critical thinking  May cloud judgment  Can never eliminate our emotions  Need to factor in their affect and make adjustments accordingly Perspectives and Language  Language can also influence critical thinking  Words are imprecise  Words have to be interpreted  Interpretation needs context  Cultural interpretation can change meaning  Improper words choice can taint intentions Assumptions  Understanding assumptions  Necessary for filling gaps in our thinking process  Can be positive or negative  Need to evaluate the degree of support it lacks  Assumptions can be close to valid  Assumptions can be wildly speculative Deductive vs. Inductive Reasoning Inductive  Particular to general  Used in detective work  Frequently used in Bible study  Conclusion is in probabilities Deductive  General to particular  Conclusion is definitive  Premise must be true and structure of argument valid for conclusion to be sound  Frequently used in systematic theology Syllogisms  Syllogism is the basic form of deductive reasoning  Contains two or more premises that infer a conclusion  In order for the conclusion to be sound reasoning  Premises have to be true  Structure of the argument has to be valid  Both conditions have to be met Syllogisms, cont.  Several types of syllogisms  Categorical  Hypothetical (uses If Then statement)  Disjunctive Truth Value of Syllogism  In order for the conclusion of a syllogism to be sound, the premises must be true  Deductive reasoning can be used to determine the truth value Truth Value of Syllogism, cont.  Categorical syllogism example  All Belhaven students support Christian values  Student A is a Belhaven student  Therefore student A supports Christian values Truth Value of Syllogism, cont.  Inductive steps to test truth value 1. All Belhaven students complete surveys asking if they support Christian values 2. If 100% response yes, the first premise is true 3. Only takes a single no to make it false 4. Admissions can verify if student A is a Belhaven student and consequently the truth value is determined Validity of Syllogism All A are B Some A are B B A B B B A B Syllogisms, cont.  No A are B B B A B Deductive and Inductive  Deductive and Inductive should be used together  Both have strengths and weaknesses Logical Fallacies  Unsound reasoning or faulty logic  Dozens of different types Logical Fallacies Types  Ad hoc  Argument from ignorance  Ad hominem (attacking the person)  Appeal to authority  Appeal to emotion  Begging the question  False analogy  Slippery slope Logical Fallacies Types, cont.  Common belief  Division  Composition  False dilemma or false dichotomy  Hasty generalization  Inconsistency  Non sequitur Logical Fallacies Types, cont.  Red herring  Straw man  Two wrongs make a right  Slanting Limitations  All logic has limitations  Sound reasoning from a Christian Worldview may supersede secular logic  May be logical from God’s perspective but not the world This concludes Unit 5 Recapping Unit 5  Importance of critical thinking  Perspectives  Assumptions and biases  Sound reasoning  Deductive versus inductive reasoning  Logical fallacies References Angelo, T. A. (1995). Beginning the dialogue: Thoughts on promoting critical thinking: Classroom assessment for critical thinking. Teaching of Psychology, 22(1), 6 -7. Halpern, D. (1998). Teaching critical thinking for transfer across domains. Dispositions, skills, structure training, and metacognitive monitoring. American Psychologist, 53(4), 449 – 455. References Kirby, G. R. & Goodpaster, J. R. (1999). Thinking . (3rd. ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Scriven, M. & Paul, R. (1996). Defining critical thinking: A draft statement for the national council for excellence in critical thinking. Retrieved from: http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/defining -critical -thinking/410
Leadership Development Paper • Assignment: (265 points) o Prompt: The purpose of this paper is to articulate your development as a leader from a Christian worldview. Include the following content in y
MSL 601 Introduction to Graduate Education Belhaven University Unit 6 Leadership Topics Covered in this Lecture  Biblical principles for effective leadership  Leadership models  Leadership styles  Leadership versus management Introduction to Leadership  Various concepts about leadership  Conflicting definitions  Leadership development Leadership Myths  Leaders are born, not made.  Leaders must be charismatic.  Leaders don’t delegate the important stuff.  Leadership exists only at the top.  Leadership incompetence results from too little of “the right stuff.”  Leaders need to keep others at a distance (Baldwin, Bommer, and Rubin, p. 313). Leadership Matters  “Effective leadership is paramount for the success of organizations and the well -being of employees and citizens.”  “Effective leadership makes great things happen.”  (Baldwin, Bommer, and Rubin, p. 311). Biblical Principles for Effective Leadership  The first shall be the last.  If you want to save your life, you must lose it.  If you want to live, you must die.  Biblical leadership entails a change in paradigms.  Turning the world upside down. Natural versus Biblical  Natural  Leader is first  The leader is the most competent in the group and goes first, and people follow that person as the leader. Biblical Leadership  The one leading points to God as the leader.  Connects others with God. Natural versus Biblical  Natural  Outward appearance  1 Samuel 16:6  Personal strength  Temporal Goals  Biblical  Intentions of the heart  1 Samuel 16:7  Personal weakness  2 Corinthians 12:9  2 Corinthians 1:8 -11  Eternal Goal Natural versus Biblical Natural  Personal accomplishments  Prominence  Charisma Biblical  Faith in Christ’s accomplishments  Galatians 6:12 -14  God shows no partiality  Galatians 2:6  Non -essential  2 Corinthians 10:10 Natural versus Biblical, cont. Natural  Separate class or category of person (leader vs. follower)  Degree of greatness or success is measured quantitatively by a number of followers Biblical  No categorical or class distinction between leader and follower (1 Peter 2:9, priesthood of believers)  Mandated to not make followers after oneself. Natural versus Biblical, cont. Natural  Performance is measured by the success of influencing followers  Priority is to lead and influence others toward a tangible goal Biblical  Performance is measured by obedience to God’s will.  Priority is to influence others to follow Christ resulting in leading others to Christ Natural versus Biblical, cont. Natural  Dependent upon persons  The leader’s existence is dependent upon the role of other followers. Biblical  Dependent upon God  The role of the follower is not dependent upon any created person or object, but rather dependent on God. Natural versus Biblical, cont. Natural  Leader and follower are codependent  Ego/leader -centric  Organizational success “rises and falls on leadership” (Maxwell, 1998, pp. 2 & 134) Biblical  Only one true leader; Christ  Christ Centric  Follower/leader vicarious victor with Christ Natural versus Biblical, cont. Natural  Chosen and selected by man Biblical  Chosen and called by God Leadership Models  Servant Leadership  Transformational Leadership  Transactional Leadership  Situational Leadership  Charismatic Leadership Leadership Models, cont.  Descriptive not prescriptive  Biblical examples for each model can be found  All truth is God’s truth Servant Leadership  Originally developed by AT&T executive Robert Greenleaf  Servant leader begins with being a servant first  Followed by “conscience choice brings one to aspire to lead” (Greenleaf, 1991, p. 13)  Greenleaf distinguishes this frame of reference from those who is a leader first  Better described as “service” leadership from a Christian perspective Christian Servant Leadership  Modeled after Christ who came to serve and not be served (Matthew 20:28)  Begins with the heart  Focused on Christ not man  Serve others as serving the Lord Transformational Leadership  Theory developed by James Burns  Originally focused on ethics  Leader made an appeal to values to drive reform  Evolved to emphasis on vision  Vision provides direction and inspiration for future state Transactional Leadership  Often contrasted with Transformational leadership  Contingent on rewards  Corrective actions if expectations not met  Applicable to implementation of tasks Situational Leadership  Leader assesses the readiness of the follower  Readiness related to maturity level or character  Readiness regarding skills or ability to accomplish tasks Situational Leadership, cont.  Leader adapts style according to four potential scenarios  Styles include:  Delegating  Participating  Selling  Telling Charismatic Leadership  Based on perception that personal qualities of the leader  Occurs during a crisis  Latter developed added dimension of attribution  Followers desire to please and imitate the leader  Values and beliefs Leadership Styles and Approaches  Directive/autocratic  Visionary  Coaching  Persuading  Example/model  Serving  Praying  Exhorting Leadership Practices  Shared Vision  Modeling the way  Empowering others  Challenging the process  Encouraging the heart Leadership Rational and Emotional  Leadership includes actions and influences based on reason and logic as well as those based on inspiration and passion .  Good leadership is more than just calculation and planning , or following a “checklist.”  Good leadership involves touching others’ feelings ; emotions play an important role in leadership too. Christian Leadership is Spiritual  This is the most important dimension that distinguishes Christian leadership  The sources is Christ  Indicates who is followed: Christ via the Holy Spirit  Method: Cross  Process: Obedience  Heart not skills Leadership versus Management Old school false dichotomy Leadership  Leaders innovate  Leaders develop  Leaders inspire Management  Managers administer  Managers maintain  Managers control Leadership versus Management Old school false dichotomy, cont. Leadership  Leaders ask what and why  Leaders originate  Leaders challenge it Management  Manager ask how and when  Managers imitate  Managers accept the status quo Lead and Manage  Replace “either/or” thinking with “both/and”  Leaders must have effective management skills Lead and Manage, cont.  Managers must have effective leadership skills  Management is the most common platform for leadership opportunities Leadership and Management Biblical Stewardship and Management Stewardship  Fruitful  Multiply Management Perspective  Measurable results  Expand/Create Biblical Stewardship and Management Stewardship  Govern  Cultivate  Keep Management Perspective  Control/Monitor  Maximize performance  Coach/Nurture  Support  Member retention  Customer satisfaction Shepherd My Sheep  Shepherd is a biblical metaphor for the leader/manager  Focus not on shepherd but sheep  Guide and direct from behind  Feed  Protect This concludes Unit 6 Recapping Unit 6  Biblical principles for effective leadership  Leadership models  Leadership styles  Leadership versus management References Baldwin, Timothy., Bommer , William H., & Rubin, Robert S. (2013) Managing organizational behavior: What great managers know and do . (2 nd . ed.) New York, NY: McGraw -Hill/Irwin. Greenleaf, Robert K. Servant Leadership: A journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness . (1991). New York: Paulist Press. References Hughes, R. L., et.al. (2006). Leadership: Enhancing the lessons of experience. (5th. ed.). New York, NY: McGraw -Hill/Irwin. Kouzes, J.M. & Posner, B.Z. (1995). Leadership Challenge: How to get extraordinary things done in organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey -Bass. Yukl, G. (2006). Leadership in organizations. (6th. ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. References Maxwell, John C. (1998). The 21 irrefutable laws of leadership: Follow them and people will follow you . (p.p. 2 & 134). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers.
Leadership Development Paper • Assignment: (265 points) o Prompt: The purpose of this paper is to articulate your development as a leader from a Christian worldview. Include the following content in y
MSL 601 Introduction to Graduate Education Belhaven University Unit Two Professional and Academic Communication Topics Covered in this Lecture  Communication  Professional vs. Academic Writing  Plagiarism  APA requirements Introduction to Communication  Effective communication is vital to maximize productivity.  Communication efficiency is a problem.  Under 5% Introduction to Communication, cont.  Common metaphors are used to stress the significant role of communication.  Life blood of the organization Introduction to Communication, cont.  Glue that binds the organization  Oil that smoothens  Thread that ties the system together Verbal Communication  Verbal communication is a transactional process  Not just a passive unidirectional event but involves the participation of both the messenger and the intended audience  Interpretation is a normal an aspect of this process Verbal Communication, cont.  Effective verbal communication can be enhanced with training and developing particular skills.  PowerPoint slides are frequently used in the workplace to support verbal communication. Writing Researched Based Papers  Many forms of college writing  Essays  Opinion  Reflective  This program requires researched based papers Distinctions of Researched Papers  Objective not subjective  Not about opinions or personal perspective  Minimize or avoid use of first person Distinctions of Researched Papers, cont.  Assertions are presented  Assertions are supported through outside resources  External references provide validity Supports Workplace Application  Analysis  Assessments  General reports  Formal memos  Budget proposals  Project proposals and reports  Employee development Professional Writing  Professional writing includes  email  letters  memos  reports Communication  Communicate questions directly to the professor, except in cases where you need to contact technical support. Your Belhaven University email address will be utilized for the class, so be sure to check it frequently. Academic Writing  Academic writing includes  Formal  Precise  Objective  Accurate  Rules to follow Required Formatting  The required formatting for your papers, assignments, projects, discussions, or anything else that maybe research based use APA formatting. Plagiarism Defined  Plagiarism involves the presentation of some other person’s work or idea as if it were the work of the presenter and is a violation of the Belhaven Honor Code. What Plagiarism is?  Plagiarism includes submitting a paper or parts of a paper written by someone other than the student.  Plagiarism also includes quoting from source materials without using quotation marks or block indentations to show that the material was quoted as required in acceptable documentation. Self – plagiarism  Self -plagiarism is also a violation and is defined as using one’s own prior work to gain credit for current works of the learner without properly citing the original source, such as a previous paper or homework activity.  If you have questions or would like more information concerning plagiarism you can go to: http://www.plagiarism.org/ Plagiarism is a Sin  The Bible teaches that God honors honesty and fair dealing. God will bless the person who “walks blamelessly and does what is right and speaks truth” from the heart (English Standard Version, Ps. 15:2; see also Prov. 20:7).  Only responsible, honest research fulfills this high ethical standard. Good research and writing are hard work. The Bible also teaches that God blesses diligent, righteous labor (Proverbs 12:24, 27). Pleasing God in Our Work  The Bible stresses that work should be performed in such a manner as it will please God who always sees not only what pleases people when they are watching (Colossians 3:22 -24). Responsible Research  Responsible research is a critical component of education, and any individual conducting research must learn how to investigate, read, understand, systematize, interpret, and finally explain complex ideas and issues in writing.  An individual conducting research must also understand that ideas found in literature, media presentations, interviews or any other form of media do not belong to the researcher and therefore must be given credit through proper documentation. Giving Proper Credit  It is required that everyone conducting research provides proper credit through the correct use of documentation. To not do so would not only be considered plagiarism, but would also be considered disrespectful to the originator of the idea. Using Turnitin  To insure that all papers possess originality faculty members will use a program referred to as Turnitin.  Any paper exceeding 20% of non -original material or noticeable undocumented information will be subject to a discount in points at the discretion of the faculty. APA Requirements  Learn the APA formatting and style and be careful to pay close attention to the general APA guidelines. General APA Guidelines  Your essay should:  Typed and double -spaced  Have 1” margins  Use 12 point; Times New Roman font  Printed on 8.5” x 11” white paper General APA Guidelines, cont.  Your essay should include three major sections Reference Main Body Title page General APA Guidelines, cont.  Every page of your essay should include:  A page header (title in all caps) in the upper left -hand corner and the page number in the upper right -hand corner. Title Page Page header: Insert blank header, flush left. Tab over to right -hand corner. Insert page number at “current position.” Title (abbreviated if need be) in all caps. Start title 17 single spaces from header Title in boldface Student Name Semester and Year Institution – City, State (double space between each) Main Body Include page header and page numbers. Indent paragraphs 1 inch margins Top, bottom, left, right Double -spaced 12 pt., Times New Roman Reference Page Include page header and page numbers . Hanging indent for all lines after first line of entry List entries alphabetically Label page “References” No bold, italics, or underline Entries are double spaced like the rest of the essay Reference List  APA is a complex system of citation. When compiling the reference list, the strategy below might be useful:  Identify the type of source; Is it a book, journal article, web page, etc.?  Find a sample citation for this type of source in the APA Manual (6 th , Ed.) or the Belhaven APA Quick Reference Style and Formatting Guide: Right -click here and select “Open Hyperlink” to download the Quick Guide.  Mirror the sample formatting for all references  Make sure that the entries are listed in alphabetical order and that the subsequent lines are indented. Reference List, cont.  Invert authors’ names (last name first followed by initials)  Example: “ Smith, J.Q.”  Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.  Example: The perfectly formatted paper: How Belhaven improved my essay writing. Reference List, cont.  Capitalize the first major word in journal titles.  Italicize titles of works such as books and journals.  Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of essays in edited collections. In – Text Citations  In -text citations help readers locate the cited source in the “References” section of the paper.  Whenever you use a source, provide the author’ s name and the date of publication in parentheses.  Example: Underwood and Findlay (2014) studied the relationship between Internet use and attention span. In – Text Citations, cont.  For quotations and close paraphrases, provide the author ’s name, date of publication, and a page number. For example:  Recent studies have demonstrated that children’s frequent Internet use decreases their attention span (Underwood & Findlay, 2014, p. 82).  Underwood and Findlay (2014) have argued, “The huge amount of content available online has significantly decreased the modern day consumer’s attention span” (p. 84). In – Text Citations, cont.  Keep the citation brief — do not repeat the information. If you have given the author’s name and year of publication in the text of your sentence, then you do not need to repeat it in parentheses. Introducing Quotations  You must always introduce quotations with signal phrases, e.g.:  According to Hammond (2014), “….” (p. 3).  Anker (2012) argued that “……” (p. 3).  Use signal verbs such as:  claimed, asserted, acknowledged, contended, maintained, responded, reported, argued, concluded, etc.  Use the past tense or the present perfect tense of verbs in signal phrases when they discuss past events. Further References/Sources  For specific questions regarding APA formatting, consult one of the following links and sources:  The Belhaven APA Quick Style and Formatting Guide: Right -click here and select “Open Hyperlink” to download the Quick Guide.  Hacker, D. (2009). Rules for Writers (6th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s. ( See particularly pp. 476 – 528.)  Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format . Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ Basic Components of the Paper  Recommendations for introduction of paper:  Three elements  Attention getting  Definitive purpose statement  Lay out key points of your paper  Should be brief (3 -6 sentences)  Avoid definitions Basic Components of the Paper, cont.  Recommendations for body of paper:  If case study, only include minimal background information  New assertions are made for each paragraph that correlates with topic sentence  Include short transitional sentences or paragraphs as appropriate between major sections Basic Components of the Paper, cont.  Recommendations for conclusion of paper:  Should be brief (4 -6 sentences) that recaps main points covered  Avoid any new content  If paper includes some sort of “lessons learned” include this as the last section of the main body Writing with Originality  Content must be original thought  Draw on personal experience and insights from reading material or discussions  Support with recognized authors  Cannot reuse content from previous papers This Concludes Unit 2  Recapping Unit 2  Professional vs. Academic writing  Research based papers  Plagiarism  APA as a writing style  Writing basics References  Belhaven APA PowerPoint Slides  American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.  Goldhaber, G.M. (1993). Organizational Communication . (6th. Ed.), Buffalo, NY: State University of New York. References, cont.  American Psychological Association. (2009). Fast facts. Retrieved Dec, 2009, from http :// apastyle.apa.org

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