Please fix my lab report
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Please fix my lab report according to my instructors comments and it’s due on Monday, April 24 , 2017 by 12:00 pm
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Lab Notes: Rate of Reaction for Alka Seltzer Tablets Name: Reem Boushahri Group 5 Hypothesis: The reaction of the Alka Seltzer is affected by the acidity of the solution. Prediction : The Alka Seltzer will dissolve faster in lemon juice than in water. Materials: Control (CV’s ) : Timing and Temp. Assumptions : Nothing wrong with the tablets , time is not accrued, nothing wrong with the testing materials and the temp. is constant. 3 Effervescent Antacid and pain relief tablets (Meijer’s brand) Thermometer in C Water (Meijer Brand) 250 ML Beaker (Med lab supply brand) 100 ML Graduated Cylinder (Pyrex 3025-100 Brand) scale (VERITAS Brand) #3 Samsung Galaxy smartphone for timing Gloves (Alaska Brand) 3 paper towels ( Meijer brand ) Methods (Control and Experimental): Great value lemon juice (946ml) ½ cup Scale (VERITAS brand #3 ) Hyprion ( PH. Paper) Beaker 250 ml Water 40 ml Alaska gloves Thermometer in F Samsung Galaxy smart phone (for timing and recording) Graduated cylinder 100 ml 3 paper towels ( Meijer brand ) Experimental methods: Test the PH of separate fluids 7th. Pour 20 ml of lemon juice and 40 ml of water in the beaker. Testing the PH level for the water and the lemon juice mixed together. Place beaker and antacid tablet side by side on the top of a towel on the top of calibrated scale. Place antacid in solution. Start timing and video recording. Record dissolving rate every 10 Sec. Data (Control Data Table and Experimental Data Table) Water : Lemon juice : Mass Time 183.98 10 sec 183.84 20 sec 183.79 30 sec 183.78 40 sec 183.76 50 sec 183.74 60 sec 1 Time 2 Time 181.777 182.867 181.643 181.730 181.534 181.563 181.420 181.440 181.345 181.440 181.307 181.412 Total time: 1:01:62 Loss: 0.24 -0.47 grams Lemon juice mixed with water: One time: 183.543 184.365 184.244 184.130 184.006 184.029 Loss: 0.514 gram Results of water Mass Time 188.184 10 sec 188.12 20 sec 188.12 30 sec 187.9 40 sec 187.9 50 sec 187.9 60 sec Loss : 0.284 gram Support or Refute Hypothesis Hypothesis is supported
Please fix my lab report
The Effect of the pH of a Solution on the Rate of Reaction of Alka-Seltzer Reem Boushahri Patrick Sonner SM 1010 April 17, 2017 Rate of Reaction of Alka-Seltzer Lab Title: The Effect of the pH of a Solution on the Rate of Reaction of Alka-Seltzer Hypothesis: The reaction rate of Alka-Seltzer tablet is affected by the acidity of the solution. It increases with the acidity of the solution. Introduction Alka-Seltzer tablets are made up of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate. These tablets are normally used for the cure of indigestion, cases of hangover, and sour stomach. Alka-Seltzer normally has its pH being 9.2. It is also soluble in water and reacts vigorously. The reaction of Alka-Seltzer involves the reaction of an acid, which is citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate, which is a base, leading to the formation of water and carbon dioxide gas. The other product is a salt as shown in the equation below: C6H8O7 (aq) + 3NaHCO3 (aq) 3H2O (l) + 3CO2 (aq) + Na3C6H5O7 (aq) The reaction of Alka-Seltzer is an effervescent reaction and thus Alka-Seltzer tablet will be used in this experiment in solution of varying pH values in order to determine the rate of reaction at the varying pH values. This will be done by measuring the amount of carbon dioxide produced after every 10 seconds. From the hypothesis, the rate of reaction increases with the increase in the pH value of the solution, thus more effervescence will be seen with the increase in the acidity of the solution. Materials 3 effervescent Antacid and Pain Relief Tablets Thermometer (degree Celsius) 250 ml beaker 100 ml graduated cylinder Calibrated Scale (for measuring the mass) Stop watch (for timing of the reactions) Gloves (For hand protection) Experimental Materials Great value lemon juice pH meter Water Paper towels Experimental Methods Part 1: Measuring the pH The pH values of deionised water and lemon juice was tested separately and recorded 20 ml of lemon juice and 40 ml of deionised water were measured and poured into a 250 ml beaker The pH of this mixture was then measured and recorded Part 2: Determining the rate of reaction of Alka-Seltzer in different pH solutions 40 ml of water was measured and poured into a 250 ml beaker and placed on the scale On Alka-Seltzer tablet was then added into the water in the beaker The stop watch was then started and the mass of the solution was measured and recorded after every 10 seconds for a period of 1 minute (60 seconds) This procedure was then repeated for lemon juice and the data was recorded This procedure was also repeated for a mixture of deionized water and lemon juice and the data was recorded. Results Data Table 1: Rate of Reaction of Alka-Seltzer in Deionized Water Mass (g) Time (sec) 183.98 10 183.89 20 183.79 30 183.78 40 183.76 50 183.74 60 Total mass lost = 24 grams Data Table 2: Rate of reaction of Alka-Seltzer in lemon juice Mass (g) Time (sec) 182.867 10 182.730 20 182.563 30 182.440 40 182.440 50 182.412 60 Total mass lost = 0.455 grams Data Table 3: Rate of reaction of Alka-Seltzer in a mixture of water and lemon juice Mass (g) Time (sec) 184.543 10 188.365 20 188.244 30 188.130 40 188.006 50 188.029 60 Total mass lost = 0.0.514 grams Figure 1: Graph of the Average Data for the Control Experiment of the Rate of Reaction of Alka-Seltzer in Different pH Solutions -Taking the fifth and sixth points on the line graph of the water solution to represent the line of best fir, the gradient is 0.02/10 = 0.002. -Taking the first and the fourth points of the line graph of lemon juice to represent the line of best fit, the gradient is 0.427/40 = 0.011. -Taking the second point and the fifth point on the line graph of the mixture of lemon juice and water to represent the line of best fit, the gradient is 0.336/30 = 0.011. From the above gradients, it can be seen that the reaction rate of Alka-Seltzer in water is 0.002; its reaction rate in lemon juice is 0.0427; and its reaction rate in a mixture of water and lemon juice is 0.0336. This supports the hypothesis of the experiment because as it can be shown by these gradient values, the rate of reaction of Alka-Seltzer is evidently increasing with the decrease in the pH of the solution. Data Table 4: Rate of Reaction of Alka-Seltzer in Deionized Water Mass (g) Time (sec) 183.98 10 183.89 20 183.79 30 183.78 40 183.76 50 183.74 60 Total mass lost = 24 grams Data Table 5: The Rate of Reaction of Alka-Seltzer in Lemon Juice for the Experimental Average Data Mass (g) Time (s) 188.184 10 188.120 20 188.120 30 187.900 40 187.900 50 187.900 60 Data Table 6: The Rate of Reaction of Alka-Seltzer in a Mixture of Lemon Juice and Water for the Experimental Average Data Mass (g) Time (s) 188.87 10 188.80 20 188.72 30 188.67 40 188.65 50 188.61 60 Figure 2: Graph of the Average Data for the Experimental Average Data for the Rate of Reaction of Alka-Seltzer in Different pH Solutions -Taking the fifth and sixth points on the line graph of the water solution to represent the line of best fir, the gradient is 0.02/10 = 0.002. -Taking the third and fourth points on the line graph of lemon juice to represent the line of best fit, the gradient is 0.22/10 = 0.022 -Taking the third and fifth points on the line graph of the mixture of lemon juice and water to represent the line of best fit, the gradient is 0.07/20 = 0.0035 From the above gradients, it can be seen that the reaction rate of Alka-Seltzer in water is 0.002; its reaction rate in lemon juice is 0.022; and its reaction rate in a mixture of water and lemon juice is 0.0035. This supports the hypothesis of the experiment because as it can be shown by these gradient values, the rate of reaction of Alka-Seltzer is evidently increasing with the decrease in the pH of the solution. Discussion & Conclusions The results of the experiment support the initial hypothesis. This is because the pH of the solution has been shown to affect the rate of reaction of Alka-Seltzer, with its rate increasing with the decrease in the pH of the solution. According to the experimental data results, the slope of the reaction of Alka-Seltzer in water was 0.002; its reaction rate in lemon juice was 0.022; and its reaction rate in a mixture of water and lemon juice was 0.0035. This supports the initial hypothesis of the experiment. The explanation behind the increase in the rate of reaction of Alka-Seltzer as the pH decreases is that an increase in the pH of a solution means that the concentration of H+ ions is also increasing. Since the reaction of Alka-Seltzer is an example of an acid-base reaction, between H+ ions from citric acid and OH- ions from sodium bicarbonate, a decrease in the pH of the solution will increase the reactant’s concentration (Thompson, 2008). This will lead to a forward reaction that favors formation of more products. And according to the particle collision theory, an increase in the amount of reactants will lead to an increase in the number of collisions involved in the reaction. This increases the reaction’s average rate (Moeller, 1980). There are a few assumptions involved in this experiment. One is that the tablets were not contaminated with any chemicals. Secondly is that timing of the reactions may not have been done correctly so it is assumed that all timings corresponded with the intended 10 seconds. The third assumption is that all the masses readings were made without any errors. The fourth assumption is that the Temperature of the reactions was constant during the experiment. References Moeller, T. (1980). Chemistry with inorganic qualitative analysis. New York: Academic Press. Thompson, R. B. (2008). Illustrated guide to home chemistry experiments: All lab, no lecture. Sebastopol, Calif: O’Reilly Media.
Please fix my lab report
QUICK GUIDE: ACS CITATION STYLE The ACS Style Guide , 3 rd ed., is the standard citation style for chemistry . This Quick Guide include s the most common formats from that publication . Examples of publication types not included in the ACS Style Guide were created based on the most relevant examples available. If writing for publication you should also check the “guide to authors” for the journal to which you are submitting your manuscript. BOOKS Several factors, such as w hether a book is in a series, is cited in its entirety or only in part, has different editions, etc. can cause variations in the citation format. These are some common formats. Book with authors (pp 300 -304) Beall, H.; Trimbur, J. A Short Guide to Writing abo ut Chemistry , 2 nd ed.; Longman: New York, 2001; pp 17 -32. Books with edi tors (citing the entire book; p 302 ) Editors’ names can appear in either the author ( first example) or the editor position ( second example). Richey, H. G., Ed. Grignard Reagents: New Developments ; John Wiley & Sons: Chicester, U.K., 2000. Grignard Reagents: New Developments ; Richey, H. G., Ed.; John Wiley & Sons: Chicester, U.K., 2000. Chapter in a n edited book (p 301 ) McBrien, M. Selecting the Correct pH Value for HPLC. In HPLC Made to Measure: A Practical Handbook for Optimization ; Kromidas, S., Ed. ; Wiley -VCH: Weinheim, Germany, 2006; pp 89 -103. Books in a series (p 306) Books published in a series may be cited either as a book (first example) or as a journal (second exam ple). If the latter is used, then the CASSI abbreviation for the series title should also be used. Seeber, G.; Tiedemann, B. E. F.; Raymond, K. N. In Supramolecular Chirality ; Crego -Calama, M. , Reinhoudt, D. N., Eds.; Topics in Current Chemistry 265; Sp ringer: Berlin, Germany, 2006; pp 147 -183. Seeber, G.; Tiedemann, B. E. F.; Raymond, K. N. Top. Curr. Chem . 2006 , 265 , 147 -183. Organic Syntheses and Inorganic Syntheses (p 305) Cumulative volumes of Organic Syntheses are cited as books (first example); annual volumes of Organic Syntheses and Inorganic Syntheses are often cited as journals (second example). Organic Syntheses ; Wiley & Sons: New York, 2004; Collect. Vol. No. X, pp 437 -441. Yamamoto, T. Inorg. Synth . 1989 , 26 , 204 -207. CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS AND ABSTRACTS Print full paper (pp 307 -308) Lindén, M.; Schunk, S.; Schüth, F. In Mesoporous Molecular Sieves 1998 , Proceedings of the 1 st International Symposium, Baltimore, MD, July 10 -12, 1998; Bonneviot, L. , Béland, F. , Danumah, C. , Gia sson, S. , Kaliaguine, S., Eds.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, 1998; pp 45 -52 (Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, v 117). Print abstracts of papers (p 308) Pere, J. J. Abstracts of Papers, Part 1 , 223 rd National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Orl ando, FL, Apr 7 -11, 2002; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2002; CELL 30. Electronic abstracts of papers (p 323) Costello, C. E. Development of “Biomolecule -Friendly” MS Methods. In PITTCON 2006 , Orlando, FL, March 12 -17, 2006 [CD -ROM]; Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy: Pittsburgh, PA, 2007; Session 10, Paper 1. DATA SETS Print (pp 314 -315) TRC Spectral Data – Ultraviolet; Texas A&M University: College Station, TX, Apr 30, 1966; No. 969 (4 -Methyl – 1-phenyl -3-tiapentane). Data from web sites (based on pp 314 -315, 320 -321) National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. Spectral Database for Organic Compounds: SDB; http://riodb01.ibase.aist.go.jp/sdbs/cgi -bin/cre_index.cgi?lang=eng , No. 2185 (1,2 -ethanediol) (accessed March 19, 2007). Commercial databases (p324) Reaxys , version 1.0 .5968; Elsevier Properties SA: Frankfurt, Germany , 2010; Reaxys RN 2154 (1,2 – benzisoxazole). SciFinder Scholar , version 2006; Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH, 2006; RN 50 -78 -2 (acetylsalicylic acid) . DISSERTATIONS AND THESES Titles of dissertations and theses are optional in print but are required in elect ronic format . Print (pp 309 -310) King, K. J. Development of a Pressurized System for Oxidation Studies of Volatile Fluids. M.S. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, March 1983. King, K. J. M.S. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, March 1983. Electronic (p 321) Abrams, N. M. Efficiency Enhancement in Dye -sensitized Solar Cells through Light Manipulation. Ph.D. Dissertation [Online], The Pennsylvania State University, University P ark, PA, December 2005. http://etda.libraries.psu.edu/theses/approved/WorldWideIndex/ETD -1061/index.html (accessed Apr 2, 2007). ENCYCLOPEDIAS Print (pp 30 5-306) Diagnostic Reagents. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry , 5 th ed; VCH: Weinheim, Germany, 1985; Vol. A8, pp 455 -491. Electronic (p 320) Chelating Agents. Kirk -Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology [Online]; Wiley & Sons, Posted July 18, 2003. http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/emrw/9780471238966/kirk/article/chelhowa.a01/current/ht ml (accessed Mar 19, 2007). JOURNA L ARTICLES AND PREPRINTS Journal titles use CASSI abbreviations. Commonly used CASSI abbreviations are listed in the ACS Style Guide . Additional sources are in the Resource List at the end of this Quick Guide. Notes clarifying some aspect of the citation may be added at the end. Print articles (pp 291 -296) Although nice, article titles from print journals are not normally included in the citation. Larabee, D. C.; Reynolds, T. Y.; Hochberg, R. B. Estradiol -16α -carboxylic Acid Esters as Locally Active Estrogens . J. Med. Chem . 2001 , 44 , 1802 -1814. Larabee, D. C.; Reynolds, T. Y.; Hochberg, R. B. J. Med. Chem . 2001 , 44 , 1802 -1814. Electronic articles (pp 318 -319) The format for citing e -articles does include the article title. Vandenabeele , P.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Moens, L. A Decade of Raman Spectroscopy in Art and Archaeology. Chem. Rev. [Online] 2007 , 107 , 675 -686 . http://pubs.acs.org/cgi – bin/article.cgi/chreay/2007/107/i03/html/cr068036i.html (accessed Mar 19, 2007). Early access articles (pp 318 -319) Padwa, A.; Bur, S. K. The Domino Way to Heterocycles. Tetrahedron [Online early access]. DOI: 10.1016/j.tet.2007. 03.158. Published Online: Apr 3, 2007. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=PublicationURL&_tockey=%23TOC%235289%239999%239 99999999%2399999%23FLA%23&_cdi=5289&_pubType=J&view=c&_auth=y&_acct=C000014439&_vers ion=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=209810&md5=5c 2e57fa33f1d0d201397bdd0dd2a3c4 (accessed Apr 3, 2007) ( accepted manuscript, has not undergone final copyediting, typesetting, or proof review). Padwa, A.; Bur, S. K. The Domino Way to Heterocycles. Tetrahedron [Online early access]. DOI: 10.1016/j.te t.2007.03.158. Published Online: Apr 3, 2007. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=PublicationURL&_tockey=%23TOC%235289%239999%239 99999999%2399999%23FLA%23&_cdi=5289&_pubType=J&view=c&_auth=y&_acct=C000014439&_vers ion=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=209810 &md5=5c2e57fa33f1d0d201397bdd0dd2a3c4 (accessed Apr 3, 2007) ; a ccepted manuscript, has not undergone final copyeditin g, typesetting, or proof review . Preprint servers (p 319) Ranguelov, B.; Stoyanov , S. Evaporation and Growth of Crystals – Propagation of Step Density Compression Wayves at Vicinal Surfaces. 2007, arXiv: physics/0703265. arXiv.org e -Print archive. http://www.arxiv.org/abs/physic s/0703267 (accessed Apr 3, 2007). MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS Relevant section in ACS Style Guide on p 315. International Chemical Safety Ca rds can also fit in this format, Ethylene Glycol; MSDS No. E5125 [Online]; Mallenckro dt Baker: Phillipsburg, NJ, Feb 25, 1999. http://www.jtbaker.com/msds/e5125.htm (accessed July 23, 2001). Ethylene Glycol; ICSC No. 0270 (U.S. National Version) [Online]; National Institute for Occupationa l Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Atlanta, GA, 2001. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsneng/neng0270.html (accessed July 23, 2001). PATENTS Include a reference to Chemical Abstracts if possible. Print (pp 310 -311) Sarubbi, D. J.; Leone -Bay, A.; Paton, D. R. Oral Drug Delivery Compositions Comprising Modified Amino Acids and Bioactive Peptides. U.S. Patent 5,792,451, August 11, 1998 ; SciFinder Scholar 1998:542693 . Electronic patent from government web site (based on pp 310 -311, 320 -321) Sarubbi, D. J.; Leone -Bay, A.; Paton, D. R. Oral Drug Delivery Compositions Comprising Modified Amino Acids and Bioactive Peptides. U.S. Patent 5,792,451, August 11, 1998. United States Patent and Trademark Office Web site. http:// patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph – Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G &l=50&s1=5,958,879.PN.&OS=PN/5,958,879&RS=PN/5,958,879 (accessed Mar 23, 2007) ; SciFinder Scholar 1998:542693 . Electronic patent from non -government web site (based on pp 310 -311, 320 -321) Sarubbi, D. J.; Leone -Bay, A.; Paton, D. R. Oral Drug Delivery Compositions Comprising Modified Amino Acids and Bioactive Peptides. U.S. Patent 5,792,451, August 11, 1998. http://www.pat2pdf.org/patents/pat5792451.pdf (accessed Apr 2, 2007); SciFinder Scholar 1998:542693 . SCIFINDER SCHOLAR AND OTHER INDEXES An author may need to cite an abstract from a source rather than the original docum ent. When citing indexes like SciFinder Scholar or PubMed , the citation to the original publication follows the format for that type of publicat ion (journal articles, patents, books, etc.) and is followed by the citation to the abstract. Abstract from a print index (pp 298 -299) Ferch, H. Plastics, Paint Rubber 1966, 10 , 85 -86; Chem. Abstr., 1966 , 17198g. Abstract from electronic indexes (based on print format and pp 298 -299, 318 -319) Beharry, S.; Bragg, P. D. J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 2001 , 33 , 35 -42 ; PubMed PMID=1146092. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed/ (accessed July 16, 2006). Babu, V. R.; Sarath, P. S.; Karanth, N. G.; Kumar, M. A.; Thakur, M. S. Anal. Chim. Acta 2007, 582 (2), 329 -334; SciFinder Scholar AN=2006:1359559 (accessed Apr 2, 2007). WEB SITES Examples on pp 320 -321 of the ACS Style Guide . Also see the “DATASETS” section of this Quick Guide. Penn State Department of Chemistry. http://www.chem.psu.edu/ (accessed June 7, 2010). Mallet Chemistry Library, University of Texas Libraries. ThermoDex Home Page: An Index of Selected Thermodynamic and Physical Property Resources. http:/ /www.lib.utexas.edu/thermodex/ (accessed Mar 19, 2007). NOTES Journal abbreviations Chemists use standard abbreviations for journal titles and the names of conference proceedings. These are published in CASSI , the Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index . Personal names Personal names often cause difficulties when preparing bibliographies or reference lists. Many w estern European names are arranged with the given name first and the family name last , so that in a bibliography the family name would come first, followed by a comma and then the given name (or initial). Not all western Eur opean names follow this pattern, and names of authors from other parts of the world certainly do not. The Chicago Manual of Style has an excellent discussion of the rules for personal names (sections 8.5 -8.20) and alphabetizing (sections 18.69 -18.87). RESOURCE LIST The ACS Style Guide: Effective Communication of Scientific Information, 3rd ed. Coghill, A.M.; Garson, L.R., Eds. American Chemical Society: Wa shington, DC; Oxford University Press: Oxford, U.K., New York, 2006. (Chapter 14 is available online at http://pubs.acs.org/userimages/ContentEditor/1246030496632/chapt er14.pdf ). CASSI —Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index: 1907 -1999 Cumulative . Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH, 2000 (and supplements). (A basic online version of CASSI is available at http://cassi.cas.org/search.jsp ; another good source for journal abbreviations is http://www.library.ubc.ca/scieng/coden.html ). The Chicago Manual of Style , 15 th ed.; University of Chicago Press: C hicago, IL, 2003. This publication is available in alternative media on request. Penn State is committed to affirmative action, equal opportunity, and the diversity of its workforce. ACS Style/rev. June 2010 /njb2
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