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Presentation. around 7-8 minutes/1000 words. Plagiarism free. Instructions via support!
Assessment Task 1(B): Narrated Presentation/Video Weight: 25% Length: Narrated Presentation / Video (7-10 mins, equivalent to 1,000 words of your own verbal presentation) Purpose/Learning Outcomes: This assessment relates to ULO 1, ULO2, ULO3, ULO4 Task This unit identifies many contentious forms of transnational and international harm that are dealt with through crime. The problem is these criminal responses are often limited or generate new problems. Your task in AT3 is to use evidence and describe how, in a perfect world, the form of transnational or international harm should be dealt with. You must do this in a 7-10 minute presentation, with audio narration by you, that draws together key themes from your research and learning in ACR301. Possible options might vary depending on the argument and evidence you present, but could include: a) strengthening transnational cooperation by removing jurisdictional boundaries or developing new institutions; b) modifying or improving existing institutions to better address the problem; c) eliminating the criminal law altogether and developing a new approach to conceiving the problem, while at the same time ensuring wrongdoers are dealt with. Your topic should be the same topic as the one you selected for AT2 (which will be the same as AT1 for most of you unless you changed topics from AT1).You can use any sources you used in AT1 and AT2, including the set text. Where possible, you should base your ideal response on evidence from the articles you have already consulted or any new works that deal with the harms you are examining. You can also draw on actual or proposed responses from other issues that have been examined in the unit as these might offer clues into how to deal with your research problem in a better way. The best responses will be supported with evidence from research you have consulted for your topics or any other related subject area. Please do not try to invent responses, as these are unlikely to show your knowledge of the unit content. Suggested layout/structure You should try to confine your examination to 6 or 7 slides in total (otherwise you will exceed the time limit). The following is a recommended outline for you to consider, but feel free to deviate if this format doesn’t suit you: A title slide; A brief summary of the problem, the harms associated with it and its transnational/international impacts (1 slide); A brief statement of current governance arrangements and policing and/or justice responses and assessment of if/why they are in/adequate (1 slide); A clear articulation of your recommended response to addressing the problem, using evidence where possible (this should take about 2 slides); A discussion of the benefits, limits or foreseeable problems associated with your responses, and how you might address these (1 slide); General reflection on the lessons that you have learned in ACR301 (1 slide). A slide containing references (please do not read this out, it is just to validate sources you use for the presentation). You must include a narration or voice over describing key issues on each slide. You are not required to submit a separate script or reference list for this assessment. Students should cite relevant materials in their presentation / slides and include a reference list at the end of the presentation / video itself. Please ensure your presentations are interesting and engaging. Feel free to use additional images, and other online sources to supplement your work, provided you acknowledge these. If you use video material, try to integrate this into your presentation so we don’t have to click on links when marking (markers are not expected to do this). If you incorporate video material, you still must present 7-10 minutes of your own original work, so keep the use of additional sources brief to stay within the overall 10 minute limit (30 seconds of other material should be the maximum). This assessment will provide an opportunity for you to employ visual and/or oral communication skills to extend and critique key issues from the unit, while encouraging you to take a critical view in examining the futures of international / transnational crime and justice. Academic Sources Students will need to incorporate and reflect upon academic sources in the development of their work (you should aim for at least 5 references drawing from your work on the AT1 or AT2 reports. You do not need to find any additional sources for this assessment). Format and submission Presentations should be done in PowerPoint format or converted to mp4 or mov formats when uploading. Please do not use another format, such as keynote or google slides, as our systems will only read powerpoint, mp4 or mov. If you use these formats you must save in powerpoint before uploading. You can change a recorded powerpoint to mp4 or mov by using the export function. This can be found under File, Export, and then in File Format change the default from PDF to either mp4 or mov. Please make sure that you provide a narration for your presentation – in previous years, many students have just submitted a power point with no accompanying explanation of the slides. You are primarily assessed on your composition of the slides, which includes your own verbal explanation of the issues you cover. Slides with no narration at all risk being returned with no grade.
Presentation. around 7-8 minutes/1000 words. Plagiarism free. Instructions via support!
AT1(A): Research Problem Report ACR301- International and Comparative Criminal Justice Word Count: 934 Wafa Fatima 218391615 International Drug Trafficking Introduction International trafficking is one of the transnational crimes that may include the trafficking of firearms, goods, drugs, animals, people, or even the larger group of internet-related crimes known as cybercrime. Drug trafficking is one of the international trafficking crimes that has been around since the Shanghai Convention that occurred in 1909 where drug trafficking was considered to pose a serious threat to human well-being. The World Drug Report indicated that approximately 10,500 metric tons of opium were produced across the world where Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Afghanistan, and Myanmar were some of the major producers. This has forced nations across the globe to act against cases of international drug trafficking and its latest impacts. The objective of this paper will be to provide an evaluation of what is known about international trafficking and why the problem is occurring. International Drug Trafficking: Definitions Criminal activities and transactions that span the national borders are transnational crimes. Drug abuse is one of the effects of international drug trafficking where illegal drugs, alcohol, or over-the-counter drugs are used for different purposes other than the purpose they are meant to serve. Sexual exploitation occurs when young adults or children are given things such as drugs or gifts in exchange for engaging in sexual activities (Bronitt and McSherry, 2017, Slide 6). On the other hand, illegal migrations occur when a group of people moves into a country while violating the immigration laws of that country. For instance, the immigrants may not have the proper documentation to stay in that country or may continue with residents after the stipulated time. What is Known About the Problem Distribution of the Drug It is widely known that illegal drugs have a high demand as well as lucrative profits. This has enhanced the ability of the traffickers to find new ways to ensure the demand for the drugs is met. The drug traffickers always try to find new partners to help smuggle the drugs, recruit and use vulnerable groups to traffic the drugs, find new drugs to be supplied in the market, exploit new manufacturing and communication technologies, and even seek new routes for smuggling. Effects of International Drug Trafficking International drug trafficking has severe adverse effects both economically, politically, human harm, and environmentally harmful. International drug trafficking has led to economic impacts because it has led to billions of lost productivities (Bronitt and McSherry, 2018, Slide 6). This occurs because of labour participation costs, incarceration, participation in drug use and abuse treatment programs, as well as premature deaths. The U.S. government spends more than $135 billion in form of healthcare costs to ensure drug treatment and other drug-related medical consequences for mental health and substance abuse (Mark et al., 2011, p.284). These funds could be used to improve the infrastructure of other areas of the economy. Politically, international drug trafficking faces the challenge of organized crime groups. In fact, international drug trafficking is a major source of revenue and funding for organized crime groups that are in most cases, linked to more serious transnational crimes such as firearms, goods, drugs, animals, people, or even fund cybercrime. For example, the drug trafficking cases between Mexico and Columbia illuminate the effects of mafias on the connection between social order and political power (Duncan, 2014, p.18). The mafias have imposed social orders and even intervened in politics to offer immunity to criminals who may be at risk of potential state repression. Their coercion helps them corrupt and dominate politically to a larger extent. Additionally, drug trafficking leads to wars that may lead to the loss of lives. A common scenario occurred when the Columbian Government signed an agreement with the United States to extradite drug traffickers (El Siwi 2018, p.951). The drug cartels waged war absent the government politicized the issue. The impact of international drug trafficking is that it causes both emotional and physical damage to the users (Greenbaum, 2017, p.1). This has a larger impact as it affects both the user as well as their families, co-workers, as well as those around them in the community. This is because drug trafficking disrupts family bonds and relationships. The health of the users may deteriorate which leaves them vulnerable to diseases and infections. The financial cost of international drug trafficking is that it increases the costs of providing healthcare services to the survivors, prosecuting traffickers, and investigating crimes. This could further translate to a loss of productivity. Prevention and Control Measures There are proactive and reactive measures being taken to mitigate international drug trafficking. The international collaborative efforts and policies have been geared toward obstructing the supply of drugs (Bergman, 2018, p.85; Brombacher and Westerbarkei, 2019, p.85). These control measures target the identification of patterns and trends to combat the supply and distribution of drugs in both local and local spheres. Education and training of the populations who are at-risk have also attempted to identify and address the risk factors (Franchino-Olsen, 2021, p.101). For instance, parents are educated and trained to avoid child abuse, child neglect, and maltreatment to combat international drug trafficking. Conclusion In summary, international drug trafficking is very prevalent in not only the United States but across the world. As old techniques are discovered, newer and more challenging strategies are adopted by the drug traffickers. Drug trafficking is connected to economic, political, human harm, and environmental harm to the users. Human health and familial and social relationships can be affected immensely. To address the impacts of international drug trafficking, it is important to follow the new and improved policies in addition to proper training and education of the member. Reference List: Bergman, M. 2018. Illegal drugs, drug trafficking, and violence in Latin America. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Brombacher, D. and Westerbarkei, J., 2019. From alternative development to sustainable development: The role of development within the global drug control regime. Journal of Illicit Economies and Development, 1(1), pp.89-98. Bronitt, S. and McSherry, B., 2017. Principles of Criminal Law, [4th edition]. Sydney. New South Wales: Thomson Reuters, Law Book Company. Duncan, G., 2014. Drug trafficking and political power: oligopolies of coercion in Colombia and Mexico. Latin American Perspectives, 41(2), pp.18-42. El Siwi, Y., 2018. Terrorism, organized crime, and threat mitigation in a globalized world. Journal of Financial Crime. Franchino-Olsen, H., 2021. Vulnerabilities relevant for commercial sexual exploitation of children/domestic minor sex trafficking: A systematic review of risk factors. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 22(1), pp.99-111. Greenbaum, J., 2017. Introduction to human trafficking: who is affected?. In Human trafficking is a public health issue (pp. 1-14). Springer, Cham. Mark, T.L., Levit, K.R., Vandivort-Warren, R., Buck, J.A. and Coffey, R.M., 2011. Changes In US spending on mental health and substance abuse treatment, 1986–2005, and implications for policy. Health Affairs, 30(2), pp.284-292.
Presentation. around 7-8 minutes/1000 words. Plagiarism free. Instructions via support!
Transnational Crime 1 ACR301- International and Comparative Criminal Justice Word Count: 2117 Wafa Fatima 218391615 Introduction: Crimes against humanity such as human trafficking reduce safety of people in their lives, workplace and disrupt the societal order that holds people together, it creates chaos and confusion, deter community collaboration, trust, and cause serious economic issues apart from costing property and lives of individuals (Natarajan 2019:30). Human trafficking is a crime mainly targeting women and children. It ruins relationships, deteriorates the quality of life, and sometimes claims people’s lives and property in gruesome and barbaric ways. Furthermore, according to International Labor Organization, the rate of modern-day exploitation and servitude increases. One of the worst crimes is human trafficking because it is a crime directly towards humanity, and it violates most fundamental rights such as autonomy, freedom, privacy, dignity, and liberty. According to the U.S (OVC) Office for Victims of Crime, annually, around 600,000 to 800,000 people, primarily women and children, are trafficked across national and international borders. People are trapped in trafficking by means such as physical force, false promises, and entrapping marriages with other people. Furthermore, the multinational agency holds that trafficking can lead to effects such mental or emotional consequences such as severe guilt, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and substance abuse, among many physical and sexual injuries that they experience (Natarajan 2019:47). Therefore, even though the world has made various huge strides towards improving and maintaining human dignity and curtailing this barbaric menace in the society, this report will delve deeper to give a comprehensive report of the strides and suggest the areas which could use some improvement so that the two most vulnerable people in the community who are the leading victims of the human trafficking crimes; women and children can feel safe again in the society. Global Response to Human Trafficking According to CdeBaca and Sigmon (2014:264), although the International Labor Organization (ILO) provides that over 21 million to 30 million people globally live under illegal servitude, some countries still shy away from prosecuting the cases involving human trafficking despite the reality of this menace in the society today. Furthermore, of all the people overexploited in the private economies, 4.5 million, which is 22% of the total number, are victims of sexual exploitation, and 68% of the total number are victims of forced labor. According to United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), women and girls are mainly abducted or trafficked for sexual exploitation from the greatest percentage of the people who are trafficked. Therefore, it is disheartening to hear the reports like the ones given by the Executive Director of UNODC at the launching of a trafficking-related report in New York that many governments are in neglect and denial. At the same time, some are even shying from reporting or even litigating cases relating to human trafficking. Furthermore, it is unfortunate that even though the convictions in cases relating to human trafficking were rapidly increasing, two out of five of the countries recorded in the UNODC Report had not recorded even a single case concerning human trafficking, and that has helped the rates of sexual exploitation connected to human trafficking to shoot to 79% of all the human trafficking issues. To curb, reduce and eliminate this illegal recruitment, harboring, transporting, providing, and obtaining individuals to compel them to offer services or commercial services have put various steps in place (UNODC 2003). One of the tools put in place by the United Nations to help deal with the human trafficking menace is the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol). The protocol, which was the first to use human beings and smuggling in the same context of illegal movement and acquiring, entered into force on December 25, 2003. It is the first global instrument that facilitates the global coverge3nce to handle the heinous transnational crime through its usage of the two words. It seeks to terminate domestic crimes, which may aid global crimes. It also supports international cooperation for the joint investigation and prosecution of the traffickers and provides protection and assistance to the trafficking victims with full respect to their human rights and dignity. Furthermore, some of the protocols in the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime enacted in 2000 also keep the fight against other crimes that can aid or encourage the human trafficking menace. Some of the organized transnational crimes that the convention has curtailed include smuggling migrants by land, sea, and air. Taking such actions against smuggling by this convention is a huge step towards curbing the human trafficking issue because while some people can masquerade as just smugglers, they actually enable the successful transition of the people into the different territories for the very illegal reasons that international organizations like the UN are trying to avert. Combating illegal migrations using the air, land, and sea is one of the greatest steps in curbing trafficking because the same routes used for illegal migration are used for human trafficking. Legislation against human trafficking has immensely increased due to the introduction of the UN Trafficking protocols in 2003. Many countries have taken it upon themselves to deal with this issue in a manner that helps the people grow and be strong while encouraging the rights of the people and the dignity of human lives at the same time. Impressive 158 countries (88%) of the member countries have brought in statutes that criminalize most the forms of trafficking in all the manifestations. However, there are some countries like Cape Verde, Comoros, DRC Congo, Libya, and Yemen that do not have legislation against the human trafficking, and almost sixteen countries only have partial legislation which prohibits the trafficking, which makes them inept and inconclusive, and inefficient in dealing with all the forms, types, and manifestations of human trafficking (Tuttle 2017: 15). The lack of comprehensive legislative statutes deprives the legislation of the power to curb and put a stop to the human trafficking menace. According to the latest report, only nearly 40% of countries reported over ten annual convictions related to the human trafficking and 15% of the countries reported no convictions, and 1% showed not even cases of litigation of any cases relating to this pervasive issue from 2012 to 2014 (UNODC 2003). The reports also gave very disturbing statistics that the Sub-Saharan African region has the fewest convictions and while the countries in the Central European and American regions have the highest conviction related to human trafficking cases. The countries litigate the cases and have the greatest conviction because they have the highest number of cases reported of abductions and trafficking. Some countries have taken active steps in dealing with the case of human trafficking on their own levels. The U.S, for example, has taken governmental steps toward addressing the issue of human trafficking within its border and beyond. The 2000 Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) of the United States has been used to effectively litigate the cases involving human trafficking and encourage the protection of the victims of the trafficking in all the places where they can be found, including forced labor, and forced commercial sexual activities. Furthermore, The William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008, H.R. 7311, 110th Cong., 2nd Sess. (2008) is themed similar to the TVPA and UNODC protocols because they stand for the 3Ps paradigm touching the issues of the human trafficking. The 3P paradigm looks aims at prosecuting the traffickers, protecting, and assisting the victims, and preventing the occurrence of the trafficking. However, the recent years have added another fourth P, which is for partnerships among organizations, nations, and experts in dealing with all the issues that surround human trafficking. Based on the TVPA, the U.S enacted the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons in the U.S. Department of State (TIP Office). The TIP Office investigates and compiles annual reports to Congress evaluating the U.S government’s determination to implement anti-trafficking laws and policies. The Trafficking in Persons Report, as generated by the TIP Office in the U.S, is not the only gauge of how the country is progressing in its way to combat the human trafficking epidemic but also how it compares on the global scale because it is a country from which most countries lookup because of its well-known and established democracy and value of human rights and dignity of human life. Some of the things that the U.S has achieved in its fight against trafficking include the provision of more than $70 million to fund the worldwide organizations to help fight human trafficking from all the corners in which it emerges (CdeBaca and Sigmon 2014:266). The cash should be spent on providing better special housing for the victims, providing counseling, law enforcement training, and rehabilitation through training, and engaging the volunteers in helping the victims (Brombacher D and Westerbarkei J 2019) The immigration officials from different countries, beginning in the U.S, Canada, Mexico, West, North Africa, and South Africa, which are countries with many cases of trafficking, have been trained to help them handle such cases and detect and report the suspected human trafficking cases the relevant authorities. South Africa has explicitly been heavily involved in rescuing slave-like situations for the safety of the victims. South Africa is another country that has been taking notes from huge countries. In 2013, it gave birth to its first anti-trafficking law, called the Prevention and Combating of Trafficking in Persons (PACOTIP) Act, No. 7 of 2013, which has been in action to prosecute the offenders and protect the victims’ rights as required by the law (Bello and Olutola 2022). Recommendations According to UNODC (2003), human trafficking is a multifaceted crime that requires the attention of all people directly or indirectly affected by the crime to fully curb and restore the social order. Furthermore, it is a crime against humanity. It violates fundamental human rights, which means that all the people, countries, nations, and organizations must treat it with all the seriousness it deserves. Therefore, since the UN and most of the countries from it have taken the cases issue of human trafficking seriously and have made legal statutes that help prosecute the offenders (Blom 2019:1278). Many have come up with a framework to help the victims. Even the five countries which are still lagging, not having any legislation against the human trafficking menace, should rush toward establishing the legal statutes on which they can base their prosecution and punishment of the people who despise human lives to the point where they can commodify it for transit for commercial sexual activities, forced labor and sometimes even for harvesting of human organs all of which are crimes against humanity and should be prosecuted to the full wrath of the national and international laws (Blom 2019) Furthermore, as the U.S has led the countries providing $70million to help aid countries in handling all the cases around the issue of human trafficking, other countries should join the hands with one another in providing the needed human resources and financial resources which are required to help people tackle this barbaric act. The funds have been allocated towards providing shelter, clothing, rehabilitation, and education to the victims of human trafficking. However, more funds should be allocated explicitly towards the mental health improvement of the victims. According to UNODC (2003), the emotional and psychological effects that the human trafficking victims go through are worse than the twice the actual crimes that they go through. Lastly, the UN and other international organizations should sensitize the public not only to stop the poly victimization of the human trafficking victims but also the help them be vigilant about all the suspicious activities which can suggest trafficking so all people on the planet can join hands and partner in eradicating this inhumane practice. Conclusion Human trafficking is becoming a popular crime in the current world. It is prominent in regions such as the Americas, West, and North African regions, even though the Sub-Saharan African regions still show less evidence of the same, according to UNODC (2003). Nonetheless, human trafficking is still increasing. It is a crime against humanity and fundamental human rights. The UNODC has put laws and policies to help curb the vice. It increases servitude, sexual crimes, and exploitation of labor (UNODC 2003). Countries like the U.S and South Africa have led by enacting the TVPA and (PACOTIP) to help curb the menace, while others like Caper Verde, DRC Congo, Yemen, and Comoros still lack any legislation against human trafficking which is unfortunate because the absence of the laws can act as leeway for the perpetration of the crime and 16 other still have partial legislations, which can be disadvantageous as well. Organizations and nations must come together and eradicate the vice. Reference List: Bello P and Olutola A (2022) ‘Effective Response to Human Trafficking in South Africa: Law as a Toothless Bulldog’, SAGE Open,12(1), https://doi.org/10.1177/21582440211069379 Blom Nadine (2019) ‘Human Trafficking: An International Response’, The Palgrave International Handbook of Human Trafficking, 1275-1298, Springer International Publishing, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-63058-8_72 Brombacher D and Westerbarkei J (2019) ‘From alternative development to sustainable development: The role of development within the global drug control regime’, Journal of Illicit Economies and Development, 1(1):89-98 CdeBaca L and Sigmon J (2014) ‘Combating trafficking in persons: a call to action for global health professionals’, Global Health: Science and Practice,2(3):261-267, doi: 10.9745/GHSP-D-13-00142 Natarajan M (ed.) (2019) International and Transnational Crime and Justice. 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press Ovcttac (Office for victims of crime training and assistance center) Human Trafficking Task Force e-Guide, Ovcttac, U.S department of Justice’s Office, Accessed 1 May 2022 Segrave Marie and Milivojević Sanja (2015) Human trafficking: Examining global responses, 1st edn, Routledge, Abingdon Oxon UK Tuttle Olivia Germaine (2017) International Responses to Human Trafficking: A Comparative Secondary Data Analysis of National Characteristics [Master Thesis], university of Nevada, accessed 01 May 2022 UNODC (2003) United Nations: Office on Drugs And Crime, United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, accessed 01 May 2022.