response to each peer , minimum of 2 paragraphs each
Peer 1: A teleologist study’s the purpose of something by looking at its results. Teleological ethics determines whether an action is considered good or bad by the outcome of choosing that action. When the moral outcome is unclear, you must choose the action that provides the best outcome. This is known as utilitarianism.
Deontological values in nursing are basically treating a patient as ends within themselves. Deontological ethics states the outcome is determined by whether or not basic morals rules are followed. Applying this theory will help prevent potential maleficence and heighten beneficence, justice, and autonomy. This theory considers the “rightness” or “wrongness” of an actions according to rules when making a judgment, rather than the consequences of that action.
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Teleological ethics is the theory of morality that is derived duty or moral obligation from what a person thinks is good or desirable and should be achieved. (Burkhardt & Nathaniel 2020) When restraining a patient, it can be quite traumatizing for the patient and their family members. Some see this action as demeaning. Restraining a patient can prevent injuries and help with controlling the patient’s violent behaviors. Because this action is protecting the patient from injury it is an ethical teleological action.
The deontological theory focuses on the moral worth not the outcomes of the actions. It explains that an act that is not good morally can still have a good outcome. A clinical example of this theory involves disclosing medical errors to patients. A lot of barriers come into play when disclosing medical errors to patients including fear of litigation, shame, and even lack of training in how to discuss these errors. These barriers may influence providers to believe that addressing these errors may do more harm than good. If applying the deontological theory, you would clearly tell the patient the truth about the errors. Patients want respect from their healthcare providers and that includes being open and honest about any medical errors.
peer 2 : According to Burkhardt and Nathaniel (2020), Utilitarianism is a type of teleological theory that can be applied to healthcare. This theory is based on the moral that an action can be judged as good or bad based on the outcome. Sometimes no action taken can be considered good or bad. Let’s look at an example (Burkhardt and Nathaniel, 2020).
A nurse is taking care of a patient in the cardiac ICU when she notices that he is having a lot of ectopy. The nurse decides to draw the patient’s afternoon labs early to access his electrolytes. It turns out that the patient’s magnesium was low, so the nurse decided to replace the electrolyte according to her protocol. The ectopy is resolved after the medication is given.
Deontological theories base rightness or wrongness on the act rather than the consequences that the action may cause. The word deontology is taken from the Greek word of duty. Deontology was established by German philosopher Immanuel Kant who was famous for disturbing the religious and political systems of his day with his philosophy (Burkhardt and Nathaniel, 2020). Let’s consider an example.
The nurse is taking care of a patient that just received a heart transplant 8 months ago. The patient’s surgery has been complicated by a stroke that has left them severely immobile. The patient is also incontinent, which has led to an unstageable pressure ulcer on his sacrum. He is on the ventilator through his trach and receives dialysis three times a week. The patient expresses the desire to stop all treatments and go home on hospice to be with his family. According to the paperwork the patient signed prior to his heart transplant, he agreed to remain a full code after surgery for at least a year. The patient and his family members are frustrated as doctors continue to care for that patient despite his current wishes.