Write 5 pages thesis on the topic adipokines. Adipokines are said to play critical roles in a number of biological processes such as glucose and fatty acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity and adipocyte differentiation since they can act locally or peripherally in the body. In addition to these functions, adipokines also confer functions as mediators linking obesity, during inflammation reactions, immunity and other obesity-related diseases.
Some adipokines like the adiponectin, visfatin and omentin are known to function as insulin-sensitizing adipokines while TNF, IL-6 and resistin, on the other hand, are examples of those that induce insulin resistance. Obesity is a major risk factor of a number of clinical manifestations such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers. Regardless of the underlying genetic and environmental determinants, the root cause of obesity is an energy imbalance. Obesity is primarily characterized by excess body fat or white adipose tissue within which are adipokines which store fat. Increase in fat that causes obesity is caused by a combination of differentiation of preadipocytes and size increase of mature adipocytes. Currently, the white adipose tissue (and adipokines) continues to attract massive attention in obesity research as it has been observed as a source of endocrine and paracrine signalling molecules vital in a myriad of physiological and metabolic processes. Insulin resistance and coronary diseases appear to be closely associated with visceral fat deposits (Taylor, 2005).
Obesity is characterized by a chronic, low-grade pre-inflammatory state causing hyperplasia and hypertrophy of fat cells leading to an imbalance in the release of adipokines which consequently causes a reduction in insulin sensitivity and an increase in contractility and inflammation leading to vascular diseases like hypertension, atherosclerosis and vascular dysfunction. .Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by impaired nitric oxide (NO) release from the endothelium and decreased blood flow to insulin target tissues contributing to insulin resistance. .
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