You will prepare and submit a term paper on Physics of Tsunamis. Your paper should be a minimum of 1250 words in length. A good average for the energy in a tsunami wave is 2 PJ (2×10^15 J). This means the rate at which the wave loses its energy is inversely related to its wavelength. As the water depth decreases the wave slows down accordingly as it reaches land but increases in height due to the shoaling effect.
As it reaches land the wavelength and frequency begin to decrease along with the velocity. The energy of the wave remains the same as it is related to the wave speed and height. It starts losing energy as it reached the shores due to the underwater friction but even with all this it still has massive energy and force to destroy everything in its path. A Tsunami with full force can send its destructive energy from its source to a coastline which could be many miles away.
Tsunamis can be generated due to the shifting of the seafloor or earthquakes on the sea bed which causes the water above to be displaced forming huge waves. This vertical displacement of water with the force of gravity tries to regain the equilibrium as a result of which massive waves are formed. Volcanic eruptions, cosmic collisions, and underwater landslides can also cause tsunamis due to the displacement of water. Submarine and Supermarine volcanic eruptions can also displace water causing the same effect. These usually have little or no effect on the coast if it at a distance from the source area as they dissipate fast.
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Tsunamis are formed due to three distinct processes i.e water being displaced vertically, propagation from the source in deep water to shallow coasts and the inundation of dry land. The propagation is easy to simulate while the generation and inundation processes are difficult to accurately predict. These simulations are very important to predict future tsunamis especially in areas prone to tsunami attacks. The generation or source such as movement along a fault which causes the water.